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infant mortality in the united states

I need some assistance with these assignment. infant mortality in the united states Thank you in advance for the help! Here the graph from the data obtained from World Bank shows the decreasing trend in infant mortality rate in the United States from 1960to 2008. This research study will examine three of the general schools of thought which have been advanced in trying to account for the racial difference in infant mortality and suggests a fourth, more promising perspective.

The first common perspective, or school of thought, argues that biological differences between the two groups may be important: Black babies are born smaller than White babies and, therefore, are at higher risk of infant death. While there is a considerable difference (about 1/2 pound) in average birth weight between the races, no evidence exists to suggest that the birth weight difference is biological in nature. On the contrary, substantial evidence exists that racial differences in birth weight are largely dependent upon the differing social and environmental conditions experienced by the populations. In short, little merit is currently granted to the biological perspective.

The second school of thought argues that behavioral differences between the two groups may be important in understanding racial differences in infant mortality. Some observers point to the higher rate of unmarried childbearing and the younger age at which women give birth within the Black community as key reasons for their higher rate of infant mortality. However, married Black women and older Black women do not fare much better (in terms of their infants’ survival) when compared to young, unmarried Black women. In fact, it is acknowledged by the medical community that the best biological age (in terms of infant mortality) to bear children is between 16 and 20. Others point out that many young, unmarried Black women may be having children at an opportune time (especially if they are poor), given their limited educational and employment opportunities, the young age of their own mothers (to better help with childcare), and their own good health (which for many poor women, tends to rapidly deteriorate through the 20’s and 30’s) (Geronimus, 2002).

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