Organizational theory and design | Management homework help

I need someone to complete these responses for me. They must be at least 400 words with at least 2 searchable persistent linked references. Thank you!
 
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Ch. 4: How do you think planning in today’s organizations compares to planning twenty-five years ago? Do you think planning becomes more important or less important in a world where everything is changing fast and crises are a regular part of organizational life? Why?
The changing environment is one of the greatest considerations encounter when leaders begin planning organizationally. “The patterns and events occurring in the environment can be described along several dimensions, such as whether the environment is stable or unstable, homogenous or heterogeneous, simple or complex” (Daft, 2013, p. 152).  An additional element that could be considered would be the difference in the use of technology in organizations that allowed the creation of global organizational design challenges.
The need for coordination, transfer of knowledge and innovation, plus the complexity and differentiation of organizations twenty-five years ago was limited to only a few transnational companies. To see how technology and organizational design are intertwined we must understand how people use tools to do their tasks. In the field of sociotechnical systems, the interconnected nature of people, tools, tasks, and organizational form is a topic that has been explored during many years of research. Organizational structures are now being designed based on network-work-based functionality (Pentland, & Feldman, 2007).  Processes such as logistics, sales, and a customer service have been changed and transformed through the development of these. This helps explain how a company that is based in the United States and has its sales force headquartered in the Philippians, ultimately changed the way organizational planning can be done.  
In the book of Luke, Jesus discussed the importance of planning.  Luke 14:28-29 (KJV) tells us, “For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?  Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him, Saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish.”
There have been several studies identifying various models of organizational decline.  These studies have lead to the publication of management literature that is replete with discussions and frameworks on the processes such a decline (Mellahi, 2005; Sheppard & Chowdhury, 2005; Weitzel & Jonsson, 1989).  Each of these models broadly encompasses early warning, firm response, failed action, and finally organizational collapse. These stages may help businesses gain an enhanced understanding of the problems and issues that they may find themselves faced with, in a rapidly changing environment.
 
Chapter 4:  Is changing the organization’s domain a feasible strategy for coping with a threatening environment? Can you think of an organization in the recent news that has changed its domain?  Explain.
An organization’s domain is the chosen environmental field of action. The domain relates to the environmental area with which the organization chooses to interact to achieve its goals. An organizational domain is not static and often changes. In order to cope with the changing business environment, some organizations choose to change their domains in order to stay competitive. The primary factors that can result in one domain being more attractive than another include reduced competition, lack of governmental regulations, and a healthier pool of suppliers.  All of these factors can compel an organization to alter its domain. Two of the most popular methods organizations have chosen to facilitate domain changes have been mergers and acquisitions. By merging or acquiring another company, an organization can get an advantage in that domain instead of starting from scratch in that particular field (Daft, 2010).
One organization that has changed domains several times is Apple. While Apple has always manufactured technological products, it originally started as a computer manufacturer. As the market evolved, Apple recognized the opportunity in the MP3 market and created the iPod. This domain shift occurred several more times when Apple decided to manufacture the iPhone and the iPad. Although Apple did not shift domains by acquiring or merging with another company, these technological shifts proved highly profitable.
Another organization that has recently changed its domain is Liberty University. According to the Liberty University website, Dr. Jerry Falwell, Sr. founded Lynchburg Baptist College in 1971, which eventually became Liberty University in 1984. In 1985, Liberty Online was developed and there are plans for a medical school in 2013, at the university (http://www.liberty.edu).  Liberty University is changing its business plan to serve others and to continue to grow.  These changes will allow Liberty University to retain market share and competitiveness with other universities.
 
Ch. 6: Compare the description of the transnational model in this chapter to the elements of the learning organization described in Chapter 1. Do you think the transnational model seems workable in a huge global firm? Discuss.
According to Daft, the transnational model is the most advanced international organization that works well in the global markets and reflects the ultimate organizational complexity with mechanisms that integrate diverse components (Daft, 2013).  The transnational model was actually developed to support the needs of large, multinational companies This model consists of multinational corporations-experienced in international markets with facilities in several foreign countries that simultaneously utilize technological advances, innovation, global learning, and efficiency to be successful.  These multinational organizations adopt organic structures, similar to the learning organization, that are flexible, unified and coordinated through corporate culture and shared visions and values of its employees (Daft, 2013).  Even though these two structures are very similar, the learning organization uses decentralization where the transnational model uses a flexible centralization structure.  This difference could be because of the massive size of the international market as compared to the domestic market.  The transnational structure assists with strong global coordination, organizational learning and knowledge, which could set an organization up for success in the global markets.
A learning organization promotes communication and collaboration in order to engage everyone in the identification and solutions of various problems. This allows the organization to continue to experiment, improve, and increase their capability. The five elements of a learning organization include structure, tasks, systems, culture, and strategy. In learning organizations, there is vertical structure. The vertical structure of the learning organization creates distance between managers and workers.
One of the characteristics of the transnational model is that its assets and resources are distributed worldwide into highly specialized operations that are linked together through interdependent relationships. Transnational organizations also have flexible and ever-changing structures. Their managers incorporate innovation and strategies for the corporation as a whole. Unification and coordination goals are achieved by corporate culture, shared values, vision, and management style.  It offers a high level of differentiation while ensuring that a global organization can coordinate activities and transfer knowledge across various functional areas and geographies (Daft, 2010)
References
Daft, R. L. (2013). Introduction to Organizations. In S. Person (Ed.), Organizational Theory & Design (11 ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design. (10th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Fad. (2012). In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved September 9, 2012, from 
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fad.
Liker, J. The Toyota Way. McGraw-Hill (2004).
Lutz, Bob. “‘Leadership By Kindness’ And Other Dumb     Management Fads.” Forbes.   Forbes Magazine, 02 May 2012.  Web. 09 September 2012  <http://www.forbes.com/sites/boblutz/2012/05/02/leadership by-kindness- and-other-dumb-management-fads/>.  
Pentland, B. T., & Feldman, M. S. (2007). Narrative networks: Patterns of technology and organization. Organization Science, 18(5), 781-795. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213831392?accountid=12085.
Sheppard, J. P., & Chowdhury, S. D. (2005). Riding the wrong wave: Organizational
failure as a failed turnaround. Long Range Planning, 38, 239-260.
 
 
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Chapter 4: How do you think planning in today’s organizations compares to planning in an organization 25 years ago? Do you think planning becomes more important or less important in a world where everything quickly changes and crises are a regular part of organizational life? Why?
            Planning in today’s organization has increased when compared to that of an organization 25 years ago with the more rapid changing external environments with higher levels of uncertainty (Daft, 2016, p.146).  These changing environments to organizations are described characteristically according to its complexity, either simple or complex; its dynamism, either stable or unstable; and its financial  resources, either abundant or scare (Daft, 2016, p.147).  THe complexity characteristic in the external environment “refers to the number and dissimilarity of external elements such as competitors, suppliers, industry changes, and government regulations” (Daft, 2016, p.147).  Technology has brought about many of the concerns with dynamism and instability for organizations such as Kodak failing to respond quickly to the digital camera market and social media also affecting instability with quick access to video footage catching an employee in a particular heinous act could be an isolated incident that could have a massive negative impact on public perception of the company. 
            These changes require more planning by management than in the past with the need for contingency plans to counter the rapid changing external environment.  The different elements from the external environment are necessary to plan for in order for the organization to perform well (Daft, 2016, p.149).  Wong, Ahmad, Nasurdin, & Mohamad (2014) conclude that business process management is positively affected by dynamism and organization hostility (p.566).  With rapidly changing external environments, managers must create contingency plans to be prepared for different scenarios, even if they may never put them into action. 
Chapter 4: Is changing the organization’s domain a feasible strategy for coping with a threatening environment? Can you think of an organization in the recent news that has changed its domain? Explain.
            Sometimes when an organization is performing what is deemed as being successful may find it hard to stray away from their domain in fear of the risk of failure.  An organization’s domain is never fixed, and can be a great way of adapting to a threatening environment (Daft, 2016, p.164).  This strategy to change an organization’s domain is feasible because of the rapidly changing external environments that is exist and as a fundamental organizational design mechanism, restructuring the domain is a great way to counter these risks during threatening environments.  Applying these concepts of changing the domain could provide an environment that has “little competition, no government regulation, abundant suppliers, affluent customers, and barriers to keep competitors out” (Daft, 2016, p.165).  It is up to the manager to decide which domains should be sought out that provide the most stable benefits to the organization with a contingency plan to change domain paths when the external environment presents a situation that calls for a change.
              A great example of an organization changing its domain in a threatening environment would be the powerhouse brick-and-mortar retail giant Wal-Mart, who has adapting to cater to the online domain with its Walmart.com in order to be competitive with Amazon (Daft, 2016, p.164).  This adapting has included Wal-Mart adding emphasis on being technology oriented that has added assets that can help to “crunch data, create more mobile apps, or speed up websites” (Daft, 2016, p.164).  Mangers have noticed a trend of online shopping that has been a raging success for Amazon, and this shift in domain is a must if Wal-Mart is to cut into Amazon’s market share of online shoppers.  Wal-Mart.com has some unique advantages over Amazon in the online shopping community with their abundant resources and the ability for customers to ship their items to a Wal-Mart store for pickup which generates an average of $6 more in purchases in the Wal-Mart store when the item is picked up (Friedman, 2009, p.1).  Wal-Mart also has the ability to utilize their financial resources to outlast Amazon in a low price war if it is necessary.  Managers must never become too complacent in with their current situation because a new technology or phase of consumer behavior could lead to a need to shift towards a different domain as Wal-Mart demonstrated with Amazon taking market share away from Wal-Mart with their vast sales online.
Chapter 6: Compare the descriptions of the transnational model described in Chapter 6 to the elements of the learning organization described in Chapter 1. Do you think the transnational model would work in a huge global firm?
            The transnational model represents an advanced international mindset for organizations and provides high levels of complexity, diversity, coordination, mechanisms for integration (Daft, 2016, p.242).  The transnational model relates to certain elements of a learning organization with both of them having high levels of communication and knowledge sharing within the organization and the transnational model actually encompasses many concepts that learning organizations practice. The transnational model of organization is made of a network of integrated operations that link together to achieve organizational goals (Daft, 2016, p.244).  The separation of the transnational model and a learning organization is the advanced levels of coordination and emphasis on global activity (Daft, 2016, p.242).  The complexities involved in the transnational model are far more challenging than that of a learning organization, which is mostly an organizational culture that promotes learning, training, knowledge sharing, and development.  The transnational model of organization also stresses flexibility of those involved especially with crisis management in the ever changing external environments (Saka-Helmhout, 2011, p.55).
            Another characteristic of the transnational model of organization that differ against other organizational forms include the way the structures are setup to be extremely adaptable as a mechanism to counter rapidly changing or threatening external environments (Daft, 2016, p.244).  This is very effective in a global business because there is ever changing variables overseas that are imperative communicate with that region and adapt to the circumstances as they arrive (Daft, 2016, p.244).  Managers constantly plan for these circumstance by creating contingency plans to counter different threats that are likely to present themselves.
How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?
            A bible verse that is relevant to this discussion on the transnational model of organization method can be applied from Proverbs 27:17 (ESV), “Iron sharpens iron, and one man sharpens another.”  This is exponentially more applicable at the organizational level, with each person learning from each other through horizontal communication, better themselves and others by matching this learning with organizational goals and values.  An organizational culture to support such a method would require individuals to champion openness and a transformational mindset that focuses on improvement throughout the organization.  The transnational organization in all of its advanced structure can be applied through this Proverbs 27:17 verse as each individual piece of the organization must work to strengthen itself and those other parts that are integrated together.  Ethics will also play a major role in the transnational model of organization because others actions may directly be tied to the success of another specialized operation that is designed to integrate with the other department.  When their intentions become political or for personal gain rather than the organizational values, the operation will surely fail and goals will not be met.  Colossians 3:23 (ESV) provides inspirational wisdom that is relevant to the transnational method of organization, “Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men.”  If each individual follows organizational culture and values and works their best, each operation will stack up together and create a success through the group working together.
 
References
Daft, R. L. (2016). Organization theory & design (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Friedman, M.  (2009).  Wal-Mart, seeking top online ranking, takes aim at Amazon.  Arkansas Business, 26(49), 1.  Retrieved from
            http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/docview/220384462?pq-origsite=summon&accountid=12085
Saka-Helmhout, A.  (2011).  Learning from the periphery:  beyond the transnational model.  Critical Perspectives on International Business, 7(1), 48-65.  Retrieved from
            http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/docview/840174639/fulltextPDF/2A66E55D49D1468APQ/1?accountid=12085
Wong, W., Ahmad, N., Nasurdin, A., & Mohamad, M.  (2014).  The impact of external     environmental on business process management and organizational performance.  Service  Business, 8(4), 559-586.  Retrieved from
            http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/59/art%253A10.1007%252Fs11628-013-0207-9.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs11628-013-0207-9&token2=exp=1460082314~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F59%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs11628-013-0207-9.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs11628-013-0207-9*~hmac=ffb0308827252dba0e8d29503b04f0b65d5727da58cacddd1d01d3591f58e6fc
 
 

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